The Ubuntu bash files are stored per-user in a hidden folder in the local appdata folder:

  • %localappdata%\lxss in DOS or Windows Explorer
  • $env:LOCALAPPDATA\lxss in Powershell

Subdirectories of interest:

  • rootfs - root filesystem
  • home\USERNAME - Ubuntu home folder
  • root - root account home folder

Courtesy of http://www.howtogeek.com/261383/how-to-access-your-ubuntu-bash-files-in-windows-and-your-windows-system-drive-in-bash/